MV Glossary

Here are some common acronyms, designations, slang terms, vehicle names and nicknames commonly used in the military vehicle hobby. Keep in mind that this list is far from complete, and not everyone in the hobby uses the same designations or terms.

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A

AFTERMARKET: Usually refers to parts or accessories made by a manufacturer other than the original builder of a vehicle. A common aftermarket item for MVs are lockout hubs.

AMERICAN MOTORS: American Motors Company, formerly Rambler.

AM GENERAL: A manufacturer of various military vehicles, including the M998 HMMWV.

APC: Armored Personnel Carrier. These may be either wheeled or tracked vehicles, though they are usually thought of as being full-tracked. They may be armed—generally with heavy machine guns. Their primary purpose is to transport troops in combat areas.

ARCTIC KIT: An accessory kit for various M-series vehicles, usually consisting of a special heater and insulated engine compartment, cab, and cargo bed covers to adapt a vehicle for extreme cold weather conditions.

ARCTIC HEATER: Usually a fuel-fired (gasoline or diesel) heater fitted to vehicles in extreme cold weather conditions. Often part of an arctic kit.

ARMORED CAR: Usually an armored wheeled vehicle, sometimes armed with various weapons. Examples are the White M3A1 Scout Car, the Ford M8 Greyhound, and the Cadillac Gage Commando.

B

BANTAM: Usually refers to the WWII “Jeep” prototype vehicle manufactured by the American Bantam Motor Company. Although the Bantam prototypes were tested by the U.S. military, it was the Willys Overland Motors prototype that was chosen for production and later became the “Jeep.”

BASKET-CASE: Refers to a vehicle that has been fully or partially stripped down into basic components or parts.

BATTLE RIM: A nickname for multi-piece bolt-together wheels used on many WWII-era MVs and today’s M998 HMMWVs. These wheels usually incorporate a “run-flat” device that allows a vehicle to be driven several miles with no air in a tire, without the tire coming off the rim. However, the tire may still be damaged or destroyed.

BEATER or BUSH-BEATER: Refers to a vehicle that is driven mostly off-road and may have been abused.

BLACKOUT LIGHT: Shielded or filtered lights mounted on military vehicles and used for driving during blackout conditions at night. They are designed to be almost invisible to aircraft, and were used on virtually all WWII and post-WWII U.S. military tactical vehicles.

BLACKOUT DRIVING LIGHT: A shielded lamp of about 4¼” diameter, usually mounted on the left front or driver’s side of a military vehicle and used for driving during blackout conditions. It emits a diffused beam that is hard to spot from an aircraft.

BLACKOUT MARKER LIGHT: Also called a “convoy light.” Small light with clear, rectangular filtered lens, usually mounted in pairs on the front of a vehicle (though motorcycles generally have one). Their purpose is to mark the position of a vehicle in a convoy. These lights display certain shapes at different distances. Most WWII-era blackout marker lights were separate units with bullet-shaped housings. Beginning with early M-series vehicles, these lights were combined with parking lamps, and later turn signal lamps. (See also COMPOSITE LAMPS)

BLACKOUT TAIL LAMP
: The same concept as blackout marker lamps, but mounted on the rear of vehicles and displaying a red light. Most motorcycles had only one. Blackout tail lamps were usually combined with the service tail lights in the same housings.

BLACKOUT STOP LAMP: A small filtered lamp that functioned as a stop light under blackout conditions. On most WWII and early M-series vehicles, the blackout stop lamp was combined with the right-hand blackout tail lamp unit. On later M-series vehicles, the blackout stop lamp is a separate unit due to the addition or retrofit of turn signals. Current M-series vehicles have blackout stop lights in composite housings.

BOBCAT: A Willys prototype ultra-light Jeep built in the early 1950s. Never put into production.

BODY TUB: Generally refers to the complete cab of a vehicle, such as the pickup truck type cab of an M37, but usually does not include doors, seats, windshield, or a cab top (if such a top is removable). The body tub of a jeep usually includes the complete body assembly, less seats, accessories, windshield, front fenders, hood, and grille.

BOMB SERVICE: Usually a variant of a cargo truck fitted with a hoist and used to transport bombs on airfields and/or load bombs aboard aircraft.

BOWS: Usually refers to wooden or metal U-shaped arches used to support the canvas of cargo bed covers on military vehicles. (See CANVAS)

BRADLEY: A current production family of full-tracked infantry fighting vehicles (IFV) that resemble tanks.

BUMPERETTE: Small rear bumpers used on most common wheeled U.S. military vehicles. Usually mounted in pairs and flanking the pintle.

BURMA JEEP: G-number designation: G-622. Manufacturer designation: GTB. “Burma Jeep” is a nickname for two-axle, six-wheel-drive 1½-ton trucks built by the Ford Motor Company during WWII. Most were cargo trucks, though two variants were a bomb service model and a wrecker. Primarily used by the U.S. Navy. Many served on the Burma Road, hence the nickname “Burma Jeep.”

C


CANVAS
: Usually refers to a military vehicle’s canvas or vinyl cab top and/or cargo bed cover.

CAPSTAN WINCH: A type of winch with a vertical drum, usually meant for use with rope as a self-recovery device. Capstan winches were fitted to GPAs, Weasels, and a few WWII jeeps.

CAMMO or CAMO: Refers to a camouflage paint scheme on a military vehicle. Camouflage paint schemes vary greatly, from greens and browns for forest or jungle, sand and tan colors for desert operations, to white with shadows for snow or arctic conditions.

CARRYALL: Usually refers to a vehicle with a panel truck type body but having rear side windows, versus a true panel truck that does not have rear side windows. Carryalls could transport cargo or be fitted with rear seats to transport personnel, hence the name. Some carryalls were equipped as radio vehicles.

CASH: Small, rectangular pieces of paper that, in the U.S., are black on one side and green on the other. Such paper is what sellers of MVs are usually referring to if they state “cash only” in their ads. Checks are seldom acceptable substitutes for cash in these situations. If one’s check is indeed “good,” then one shouldn’t have any problem taking it to a bank and trading it for cash.

CCKW: G-number designation: G-508. Manufacturer designation: CCKW. These were three-axle, ten-wheel-drive 2½-ton trucks built by General Motors Corporation (G.M.C.) during WWII. Most were powered by the G.M.C. 270 cid. engine, had five-speed overdrive transmissions and two-speed transfer cases. Most were cargo trucks, though there were also many variants. A common nickname was “Jimmy.”

CENTRAL TIRE INFLATION SYSTEM (CTIS): A system incorporating an on-board air compressor and air lines to inflate or deflate the vehicle’s tires for better traction or flotation depending upon the terrain and load. This system was first used on the DUKWs of WWII and is also used on today’s M998 HMMWV.

CID: Cubic Inch Displacement. Used to describe or rate the size or model of older engines, such as the G.M.C. 270 or Chevrolet 235. Today’s engines are usually rated or described in liters.

CJ2: The first civilian Jeep built by Willys Overland Motors in 1946. It closely resembled the WWII Willys MB. CJ stood for “Civilian Jeep.”

CJ3A: An improved CJ2 of late 1940s production.

CJ3B: An improved CJ3A. Also called a “tall hood Jeep.”

CJ5: A civilian Jeep built by Willys Motors, Kaiser Jeep Corporation. American Motors, and Daimler-Chrysler beginning in 1955. It was based on the M38A1.

CLOSED CAB: Refers to a vehicle with a fully-enclosed and non-removable cab, such as the cabs of most civilian trucks. Many early production WWII trucks, such as the G.M.C. CCKW were manufactured in both closed and open cab models. However, to save metal, most closed cab vehicles were discontinued later during the war.

CMP: Canadian Military Pattern. Refers to WWII Canadian military tactical vehicles.

COE: Refers to “Cab-Over-Engine” vehicles.

COLD WAR ERA: Usually refers to the 1950s up to the mid-1960s.

COMBAT RIM/COMBAT WHEEL: See BATTLE-RIM.

COMMAND CAR: G-number designations G-505, G-502 and G-741. M-series designation: M42. Manufacturer designation: WC (WWII models). These were two-axle, four-wheel-drive vehicles built by the Dodge division of Chrysler Corporation before, during, and after WWII. The G-505 was a family of ½-ton vehicles, while the G-502 was a family of ¾-ton vehicles. The G-741 was a family of M-series vehicles, of which the M37 cargo truck was the most common. The WWII command cars were much more specialized than the post-WWII models, having very distinctive open bodies and canvas tops reminiscent of 1920s touring cars. The post-WWII M42 Command Car was basically just an M37 3/4 ton cargo truck equipped with a special canvas shelter on the cargo body.

COMPOSITE LAMPS: Military vehicle lamp units that combine parking, blackout marker, and turn signals on the front of a vehicle, and service tail/stop/turn signal, blackout marker, and blackout stop lamps on the rear. Early M-series composite lamps had cast aluminum housings, while late and current models are plastic. All such units are waterproof.

CONTACT MAINTENANCE: Generally refers to a vehicle equipped to service and repair other vehicles in frontline combat areas.

CONVOY LIGHT: A common nickname for blackout marker lights.

CORRECT: Usually refers to parts, components or vehicle accessories that are “correct” for a specific vehicle or era. Correct (or incorrect) can also be simply a seller or purist’s opinion.

CRASH TRUCK: Generally refers to a fire-fighting vehicle equipped to respond to airplane crashes or fires on airfields.

CUCV: Acronym for “Commercial Utility and Cargo Vehicle.” A family of four-wheel-drive tactical vehicles in the ¾- to 1¼-ton range, based on civilian trucks such as the Chevrolet, G.M.C., and Dodge pickups of the 1970s to present-day. These vehicles are slightly or partly militarized civilian trucks generally not intended for frontline combat duty.

D


DAILY-DRIVER
: Usually refers to a vehicle driven regularly for work or recreation.

DEEP-WATER FORDING KIT: An accessory kit for many common M-series vehicles, usually consisting of snorkels for the engine air intake and exhaust pipe, allowing a vehicle to be driven under water, generally to the depth of the driver’s chest.

DEUCE or DEUCE-AND-A-HALF: Nicknames for three-axle, ten-wheel-drive and/or six-wheel-drive cargo trucks of any manufacturer. It is believed that these nicknames came into use after WWII, probably during the Korean and Cold War eras.

DODGE: A division of Chrysler Corporation, currently Diamler-Chrysler Corporation.

DOGHOUSE: Usually refers to the front body parts of a vehicle, such as the hood, grille, and front fenders that house the engine.

DRIVE-ANYWHERE: A generally meaningless term often used in advertisements. It is only a seller’s opinion. One person’s idea of “anywhere” is probably not yours.

DUKW: G-number designation: G-501. Manufacturer designation: DUKW. Nickname: “Duck.” Three-axle, six-wheel-drive, 2½-ton amphibious cargo trucks built by General Motors Corporation during WWII. These vehicles were based on the CCKW chassis and used most of the same mechanical components.

E


EASY RESTORATION
: A generally meaningless term often used in private-party advertisements for military vehicles. It is simply a seller’s opinion.

F


F-HEAD
: A type of engine design in which the exhaust valves are mounted in the block while the intake valves are mounted in the cylinder head. An example is the Willys Hurricane engine used in the M606 and M38A1 Jeeps.

FAV: Fast-Attack Vehicle. Usually a light four-wheel-drive vehicle (though can also be two-wheel-drive) either specially built or modified from an existing vehicle for high -mobility and speed in frontline combat areas. FAVs are usually armed with machine guns or missile launchers.

FIELD REPAIR: Usually refers to vehicle repairs made in the “field,” by the side of the road, or in combat conditions. Often a simple quick-fix or temporary repair.

FIELD MODIFICATION: Usually refers to something added to a vehicle in the field—such as a winch or a wire cutter—versus the same modification performed at the vehicle’s factory. Such modifications may or may not be offically authorized by the military. Adding armor to the HMMWV is a common field modification performed today. Also a slang term for civilian modifictions to a military vehicle. Such modifications may make a vehicle less desirable or valuable to MVers.

FLATHEAD: Also “L-HEAD” and “T-HEAD.” A type of engine design in which the intake and valves are mounted in the engine block, and the cylinder head is “flat” with no mechanical components. Common examples are the Dodge M37 engine and the Willys “Go-Devil” engine.

FLAT FENDER JEEP: A nickname for early model Jeeps such as the Willys MB and M38. Also applied to civilian Jeeps such as the CJ2 and CJ3A.

FLAT TOW: Usually one vehicle towing another vehicle with a tow-bar versus the towed vehicle’s front end being lifted as with a tow-truck.

FORD: Ford Motor Company.

FORDING: Usually refers to driving a vehicle through a river or stream.

FORDING CONTROL: Usually refers to a handle or knob on a military vehicle’s dashboard that controls a valve on the engine. When engaged, this valve pressurizes the engine’s crankcase, and sometimes other components such as the transmission, to keep water out when fording. Many M-series vehicles have fording controls whether or not they are equipped with fording kits.

FRAME-OFF RESTORATION
: Usually refers to restoring a vehicle by removing the body componets from the frame or chassis. However, when used in an advertisement, the term does not guarantee a show-quality restoration or that the restoration was done well.

FREE-WHEELING FLANGE: A nickname for a vehicle’s front drive flange that has usually had its splines bored or drilled out so it disconnects the front axle from the front wheels for highway driving. Such flanges are often made in home workshops.

FRONT-END SHIMMY: A condition in which a vehicle’s front wheels shimmy side-to-side, sometimes to the point where the vehicle becomes uncontollable or suffers damage. Shimmy may be caused by bent wheels, tires out of balance, and/or wear on various front axle components. Front-end shimmy is annoying at best and dangerous at worst. Installing free-wheeling flanges or lockout hubs will often help prevent shimmy.

FRONTLINE
: Usually refers to the “front” or main combat area during wartime (where most of the fighting is). Most tactical military vehicles are designed for frontline operation.

FUBAR: “Messed Up Beyond All Redemption.”

FULL-TRACKED: Any fully-tracked vehicle, such as a tank or a bulldozer.

FULL RESTORATION or FULLY?RESTORED: While this should refer to a vehicle that has been completely restored to original factory specifications, it is often just an ambiguous term used in advertisements. It does not guarantee a show-quality restoration or even that a restoration was done correctly or well, and may be only a seller’s opinion.

G

G-NUMBER: A system of designations used by the U.S. Army, combining various groups of vehicles that may have many variants but are basically similar in regard to engines, transmissions, axles, chassis, and mechanical components. G-numbers are not generally used in the MV hobby for post-WWII and present-day vehicles.

GAMA GOAT: G-number designation: G-847. M-series designation: M561 (basic cargo model). A three-axle, six-wheel-drive, 1½-ton cargo/troop-carrying vehicle. The Gama Goat was an unusual vehicle, having a permanently-attached trailer and front and rear steering. Although touted as being fully amphibious, its actual swimming capabilities were very limited. The “Gama” name came from the designer of the vehicle’s unique articulation/power transfer joint (between the four-wheeled tractor unit and the two-wheeled trailer), Roger L. Gamaunt. The Gama Goat was powered by a Detroit Diesel 3-53 engine.

GI: Popular nickname for U.S. soldiers. Derived from “Government Issue.”

G.M.C.: General Motors Corporation.

GO-DEVIL: Willys Motors name for the four-cylinder L-head engine used in the WWII Jeeps, as well as the Korean War era M38 Jeep. This engine was also used to power generators and welding machines, among other industrial applications.

GOOD-RUNNER: A generally meaningless term often used in advertisements. It is only a seller’s opinion.

GP: A prototype “Jeep” built by the Ford Motor Company. GPs are rare vehicles today.

GPW: G-number designation: G-503. Manufacturer designation: GPW. Nickname: “Jeep.” Although the Ford prototype “Jeep” was not chosen for production by the U.S. Military, Ford was awarded a contract to build Willys Jeeps during WWII. With a few minor differences, the Ford GPW was a clone of the Willys production model MB.

GPA: G-number designation: G-504. Manufacturer designation: GPA. The GPA was a Ford-built two-axle, four-wheel-drive amphibious vehicle based on the GPW. Although a remarkable vehicle, the GPA proved to be limited in combat roles. One nickname was “Seep,” which could have meant either “Sea-going Jeep,” or possibly referred to its marginal seaworthiness. A highly modified GPA was sailed and driven around the world in the 1950s. GPAs are very rare and valuable today.

GUN TRUCK: Usually refers to cargo trucks in Vietnam that were armor-plated and armed in the field to escort convoys.

H


HALF-TRACK
: G-number: G-102, G-147. Basically an armored truck with rubber tracks instead of rear wheels. Half-tracks were intended for troop transport and as fighting vehicles in combat areas. The G-102 was built by the White, Diamond-T, and Autocar truck companies during WWII. The G-147 was built by International Harvester Corporation (I.H.C.) during WWII. There were many variants. Half-tracks were phased out of U.S. military service after WWII, but are still in use by other armed forces.

HARD CAB: Usually refers to a vehicle’s metal, wooden, or fiberglass cab top or enclosure when such a top is removable, versus a closed cab, which is an intergral part of the vehicle.

HOTCHKISS: A French manufacturer of Jeeps under Jeep license.

HMMWV: M-series designation: M998 (basic model). Nickname: “Hummer.” A two-axle, four-wheel-drive 1¼-ton cargo/utility vehicle built by the AM-General Corporation and in current use by the U.S. Military. There are many variants of the HMMWV. The name is derived from “High-Mobility, Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle.”

HURRICANE: Willys Motors name for the four-cylinder F-head engine used in the M606 and M38A1 Jeeps.

I


IDIOT LIGHTS
: Slang term for dashboard warning lights used to replace actual instruments—most commonly ammeters and oil pressure gauges—on various vehicles, most notably American cars and light trucks of the late 1950s into the late 1970s. A few U.S. MVs, such as the American Motors Mighty Mite, had such lights.

I.H.C.: International Harvester Company. Slang terms for I.H.C. vehicles include “Corn-Binder” or simply “Binder.”

J

JEEP: While the name, “Jeep,” is often applied to virtually any small four-wheel-drive vehicle or present-day SUV (Sport/Utility Vehicle), it is more properly used in the MV hobby to denote ¼-ton, four-wheel-drive, general-purpose vehicles such as the GPW, MB, M38, M606, and M38A1, which were built by Willys Overland Motors (also Ford during WW II) and Kaiser Jeep Corporation during the Korean War and Cold War eras. Also, of course, civilian Jeep models, such as the CJ2, CJ3A, CJ3B, and CJ5. There is an ongoing debate in the MV world as to whether the M151 MUTT should also be called a “Jeep.”

JERRY CAN: Nickname for the 5-gallon spare fuel container mounted on most U.S. military vehicles. The name came from the German fuel containers of WWII.

JIMMY: A nickname that usually refers to WWII 2½- ton trucks built by G.M.C.

K


KAISER
: Kaiser Jeep Corporation.

KOREAN WAR ERA: Usually refers to the early 1950s.

L

L-HEAD: Also FLATHEAD. Usually refers to a type of engine with intake and exhaust valves in the block and mounted to one side of the cylinders. Examples are the Willys four-cylinder Go-Devil engine and the six-cylinder Dodge engines used in the WWII WC trucks and the post- WWII Dodge M37.

LANDING LEG
or LANDING GEAR: Common terms for a skid or wheel mounted on the front of trailers and lowered to keep the trailer level when disconnected from the towing vehicle.

LIFTING SHACKLE: Metal rings or loops usually mounted on a military vehicle’s front and rear bumpers or frame and used for lifting the vehicle, such as when loading vehicles aboard a ship.

LOCKOUT HUBS/LOCKING HUBS: Also called “free-wheeling hubs.” These are accessory items available for most civilian all-wheel-drive and many common military vehicles. They disconnect the front wheels from the front axle shafts for highway use. Advantages are less wear on the front drive train, better fuel mileage, and less tendency for front-end shimmy.

LUNETTE: Usually denotes the ring type hitch of most U.S. military trailers and tow-bars.

M

M-SERIES: A designation system used by the U.S. military to denote a make, model, and type of vehicle. Unlike the G-number, which generally refers to a group or family of vehicles, the M-series number usually specifies the type of vehicle and its variant, including special equipment or armament. An example is the M37 ¾-ton four-wheel-drive cargo truck, which has an ambulance variant designated M43, and a command car variant designated M42, among many others. In the MV hobby, M-series designations are generally used for post-WWII era vehicles on up to the present day. Most M-series vehicles have standardized 24-volt waterproof electrical and ignition systems and share many common minor components such as blackout and taillights, as well as dashboard instruments.

M-SERIES LIGHT SWITCH: A standardized switch used in virtually all M-series vehicles. It controls both the service driving lights (head and tail lamps) as well as the blackout lighting system. A lockout prevents the service driving lights from being switched on accidentally under blackout conditions. The switch also allows the service stop lamp(s) to be turned off.

M-1-4: The “M” is misleading on vehicles designed and built by the International Harvester Company (I.H.C.) during WWII because it was a factory designation rather than an M-series number. Presumably, the “M” stood for military vehicle, or a vehicle built for the military. The M-1-4 was a ½-ton, two-axle, four-wheel-drive cargo truck built for the U.S. Marine Corps. There were several variants, including an ambulance. I.H.C. WWII vehicles are rare today.

M-2-4: A 1-ton, two-axle, four-wheel-drive cargo truck built by I.H.C. for the U.S. Marine Corps in WWII. Variants include an ambulance model

M-3-4: A 1½-ton, two-axle, six-wheel-drive cargo truck built by I.H.C. during WWII. There were several variants, including a fire/crash unit.

M-3-6: A 1½-ton, three-axle, six-wheel-drive cargo truck built by I.H.C. during WWII. A very rare vehicle.

M-5-6: A 2½-ton, three-axle, ten-wheel-drive cargo truck built by I.H.C for the U.S. Marine Corps during WWII. Several variants include a tanker and dump truck.

M35: G-number: G-742. A Korean War and Cold War era 2½-ton, three-axle, ten-wheel-drive cargo truck, originally designed and built by the Reo Motor Truck Company. Early nicknames were “Eager Beaver” or simply “Reo.” These trucks are also commonly called “deuce-and-a-halfs” or “deuces.” There are many variants, and these trucks were built by many different companies, such as Willys/Kaiser Jeep, Studebaker, American Motors, and AM General. As a series, these trucks are still in service today.

M34: A six-wheeled variant of the M35.

M37: G-number: G-741. A two-axle, four-wheel-drive, ¾-ton cargo truck built by the Dodge division of Chrysler Corporation, beginning in the early 1950s. Although phased out of U.S. military service in the late 1960s-early 1970s, many M37s are still in service with other armed forces today. Probably the most popular collector MV next to the Jeep.

M38: G-number: G-740. Willys factory designation: MC. A Korean War era Jeep built by Willys Overland Motors and based on the civilian CJ3A.

M38A1: G-number: G-758. Willys factory designation: MD. A Korean War era Jeep built by Willys Overland Motors. Also called a “round-fender Jeep.” This Jeep’s front end, or “doghouse” was redesigned to accommodate the new Willys F-head engine. The CJ5 was a civilian version of the M38A1. (While the M38A1 went into production in 1952, the CJ5 did not appear until 1955.)

M211: G-number: G-749. This was a three-axle, ten-wheel-drive, 2½-ton cargo truck designed and built by General Motors Corporation in the early 1950s. GMC had hoped that this truck would replace their world-famous CCKW of WWII. The M211 had a 302 cid. GMC engine and a four-speed Hydra-Matic transmission.

M135: A six-wheeled variant of the M211.

M606: A partly militarized CJ3B Jeep built by Willys Overland during the 1950s and 1960s. Also called a “tall hood Jeep” because its hood, grille and cowl were taller than other “flat fender” Jeeps to accommodate the F-head engine. Rarest of the U.S. military Jeeps, except for the WWII prototypes.

M715: A 1¼-ton, two-axle, four-wheel-drive truck designed and built by the Kaiser Jeep Corporation from 1967 to 1969. These trucks were built from mostly off-the-shelf civilian components, and their cabs and front sheet metal were basically from the civilian Jeep Gladiator trucks. Although rugged in many ways, the truck’s major fault was its poorly designed Kaiser six-cylinder overhead-cam engine. (See TORNADO)

M880: A series of partially militarized 1¼-ton trucks based on Dodge civilian trucks of the 1970s.

M998: See HMMWV.

MA
: The Willys factory designation for the early production model of the WWII Jeep. Only about 1,500 MAs were built, and many were sent to Russia. The MA is a rare vehicle today.

MB: The Willys factory designation for the main production model of the WWII Jeep. In the MV?hobby, “MB” is a common designation for WWII Willys Jeeps.

MC: The Willys factory designation for the M38 Korean War era Jeep. Not commonly used in the MV hobby to describe the M38.

MD: The Willys factory designation for the M38A1 Korean and Cold War era Jeep. Not commonly used in the MV hobby to describe the M38A1.

MAHINDRA JEEP: A Jeep manufactured by Mahindra of India. Many Mahindra Jeeps resemble the M606, though newer and current models resemble the M38A1.

MAJOR DISASTER: See GOOD-RUNNER, EASY RESTORATION, RESTORABLE, and NORMAL RUST.

MATCHING NUMBERS: Also NUMBERS MATCH: Generally refers to a military vehicle that has body, frame, and engine model or serial numbers that “match.” This usually indicates that the vehicle is all original as it came from the factory in regard to its major components…that its engine has not been replaced with a different engine, or its body has not been mounted on a different frame. However, matching numbers do not necessarily mean that the vehicle’s engine was never rebuilt, or that some components such as the transmission or transfer case were not replaced. Nor does it necessarily mean that the vehicle is fully or correctly restored, or factory original in regard to minor components and accessories.

MIGHTY MITE
: G-number designation: G-843. M-series designation: M422. A ¼-ton, two-axle, four-wheel-drive utility vehicle resembling a scaled-down M38A1 Jeep and built by American Motors Corporation. Basically an ultra-light Jeep designed to be easily air-transportable and intended to support paratroopers. It had an all-aluminum body and was powered by an air-cooled V-4 engine.

MILITARIZED
: Generally refers to a civilian vehicle that has been slightly to extensively modified for military service. Examples are the M38 Jeep, which was an extensively militarized CJ3A, or the Dodge M880 which was a partially militarized civilian truck.

MITSUBISHI JEEP: A Jeep manufactured by Mitsubishi of Japan. Most Mitsubishi Jeeps resemble the M606.

MULE
: M274. A small ½-ton, two-axle, four-wheel-drive platform type vehicle about half the size of a Jeep and intended for cargo transport in combat areas. Mules were also fitted with various weapons. Some Mules had four-wheel steering.

MULTIFUEL: A type of engine commonly used in Vietnam-era M35 trucks and other military vehicles. While its preferred fuel is diesel, it can also be run on gasoline, jet fuel, kerosene, and other similar volatile liquids, including bio-diesel. There were virtually no civilian counterparts to multifuel engines.

MUTT
: G-number: G-838. M-series number (basic model): M151. A ¼-ton, general-purpose, two-axle, four-wheel-drive vehicle designed by the Ford Motor Company in the early 1950s to replace the Jeep. Unlike the name, “Jeep,” “MUTT” stands for something: “Military Utility Tactical Truck”…although most GIs called the MUTT a “jeep.” The MUTT featured an independent suspension system which made the vehicle prone to rollover, though this fault was corrected to some degree on later models. There were many variants of the MUTT, and these vehicles are still in service with many armed forces today.

M151: There were three basic models of the MUTT… the M151, M151A1, and M151A2.

MV: “Military vehicle.”

MVer: A military vehicle enthusiast, user, hobbyist, collector, restorer, fan, etc.

MVM:?Military Vehicle Magazine, 700 East State St., Iola, WI?54990-0001; Web site: www.militaryvehiclesmagazine.com. Ca. 19,000 subscribers, primarily in U.S.

MVPA
:?Military Vehicle Preservation Association, P.O.?Box 520378, Independence, MO 64052; Web site:?www.mvpa.org. Ca. 8,500 members world-wide.

N

ND: Usually refers to U.S. military pattern non-directional tread tires. Such tires are called “non-directional” because they grip just as well going forward or backward.

NORMAL RUST: A meaningless term often used in private party advertisements. What may seem “normal” to one person may be a major disaster to another.

NOS: “New Old Stock.” Usually refers to new parts, often still in their original boxes or crates, but which may be many years or decades old.

O

OD: Usually refers to olive drab paint in the MV hobby, but may also mean “Overdrive” to other people.

OHC: Usually refers to an OHV engine design (See OHV) in which the camshaft is mounted in the cylinder head along with the intake and exhaust valves, versus a camshaft in the engine block. Example: the Kaiser Tornado engine used in the M715. (See M715 and TORNADO)

OHV: Usually refers to an engine with “Overhead Valves,” meaning the intake and exhaust valves are mounted in the cylinder head, versus a “Flathead” engine in which the valves are mounted in the engine block. (See FLATHEAD, L-HEAD and T-HEAD) Common examples of OHV engines in military vehicles are the G.M.C. 270 and the Chevrolet 235.

OFF-THE-SHELF
: Slang for parts or components that are usually in stock (on the shelf) in most auto and truck parts stores, or parts and components that already exist and are not specially made for military vehicles. Example: the Kaiser M715 was built with many off-the-shelf parts and components. (See M715)

OLDER RESTORATION: Generally refers to a vehicle that was fully or partially restored several to many years in the past. Usually the vehicle has aged in normal ways—dust, faded paint, aging of tires, rubber and canvas, etc. Sometimes the vehicle has been driven a lot.

OPEN CAB: Usually refers to vehicles that do not have permanent cab tops or doors, such as many WWII WC Dodges, versus closed cab vehicles. (See CLOSED CAB) Many early production WWII vehicles were manufactured in both open and closed cab models, but due to metal shortages, most closed cab vehicles were discontinued later during the war. Some open cab vehicles may be fitted with hard cabs. (See HARD CAB)

OTTER: G-number designation: G-245. A full-tracked, aluminum-bodied amphibious vehicle about the size of an M37, designed for operation in snow or marshes.

P

PINTLE: Standard U.S. military vehicle hook-type trailer hitch designed for the lunette of most U.S. military trailers and tow-bars. (See LUNETTE)

PIONEER TOOLS: Usually refers to the shovel, axe, and mattock mounted on most U.S. military vehicles.

PRIVATE PARTY: Usually refers to a private individal buyer or seller, versus a dealer or company.

PS MAGAZINE: “The preventive maintenance monthly” published by the US Army Publishing Agency, Distribution Operations Facility, 1655 Woodson Rd., St .Louis, MO 63114-6128; Web site: www.apd.army.mil.

PURIST
: Sometimes used as a derogatory term for a person who cannot be satisfied with any MV unless it has been restored to original, perfect, correct, factory condition. Being a purist is not necessarily a bad thing, but some purists give the hobby a bad name by disparaging vehicles that in their opinions are less than perfect… often within earshot of the vehicles’ owners, friends and family.

R

RACKS: A nickname for removable wooden or metal sideboards used on military cargo trucks. Racks are often combined with troop seats and may also support or serve as mountings for the bows.

RAG TOP: Slang term for a vehicle’s canvas or vinyl cab top.

REO: The Reo Motor Truck Company. Also a common Korean War and Cold War-era nickname for the M35 and M34 2-1/2 ton trucks.

REPRO: Usually refers to reproduction parts manufactured to the same or similar specifications as original or NOS parts. (See NOS) The quality of reproduction parts vairies widely: some are exact replicas, while others only resemble original parts.

RESTORABLE: A generally meaningless term often used in private-party advertisements for military vehicles. Most vehicles are restorable as long as one has the time, money, skills and facilities to restore them.

ROLLING CHASSIS: Usually refers to a vehicle that has had its engine and/or other major mechanical components or body parts removed, but still has wheels so it is towable or “rollable,” as opposed to a basket-case.

ROUND-FENDER JEEP: A nickname for Jeeps such as the M38A1 and the CJ5.

RUN-FLAT: See BATTLE-RIM.

S

SCOUT CAR: G-number: G-067. A two-axle, four-wheel-drive armored vehicle built by the White Motor Truck Company during WWII.

SCRIPT JEEP: Early production models of both the Willys and Ford-built Jeeps of WWII had “WILLYS” or “FORD” stamped on the left rear end of their bodies. Many other early production WWII vehicles also had company names on grilles or hoods. This practice was discontinued by government order later in the war

SELF-RECOVERY WINCH: Usually refers to the front-mounted winch common on most MVs. While such winches could be used for many things, their primary purpose was to extract the vehicle from bogged-down situations.

SERVICE: While “service” can mean “to serve,” as in “serving one’s country” or “being in the service,” the term is more commonly used in the MV hobby to describe routine maintainance performed on vehicles, such as lube jobs and oil changes, versus “Repair,” which usually means fixing or replacing something that is broken or worn out.

SERVICE DRIVING LIGHTS: A vehicle’s standard head, tail, and marker lights used during normal and highway driving conditions.

SERVICE STOP LIGHT: A stop light that functions during normal and highway driving conditions, versus a blackout stop light used during blackout conditions.

SERVICE TAIL LAMP: A tail light that functions during normal and highway driving conditions, versus a blackout tail lamp used during blackout conditions.

SHELTER: Usually refers to a camper-like boxy unit that may be mounted in the bed of a cargo truck to shelter personel and/or radio equipment.

SHIMMY: See FRONT-END SHIMMY.

SHOP VAN: Generally refers to a van-bodied vehicle equipped to do extensive service and repair of other vehicles in combat areas.

SHOW RESTORATION: Usually refers to vehicles fully restored to factory orginal condtion for the purpose of display at vehicle shows or in museums. However, it may be only a seller’s opinion.

SLAT-GRILLE: A nickname that usually refers to early-production Jeeps of WWII that had strap-iron grilles instead of the more common stamped sheet-metal grille. Approximately 1,500 were built. The demand for, and prices of, slat-grille Jeeps are not generally significantly higher than for the more common models with sheet-metal grilles.

SNAFU: “Situation Normal, All Fouled Up.”

SUPER SINGLES: Usually refers to larger size tires mounted on vehicles that generally used dual rear wheels, such as the M211 and M35. Although the term came into use during the 1960s, the concept was far from new. Many WWII CCKWs in desert combat were fitted with 11.00 x 18 single tires to replace their 7.50 x 20 duals. This gave better performance in sand.

T


T-HEAD
: An engine design similar to an L-head in which the intake and exhaust valves are located in the block. Unlike an L-head, the T-head valves are placed one on each side of the cylinder instead of on the same side.

TACTICAL VEHICLE: A vehicle intended for use in combat, such as a Jeep or a tank.

TORNADO
: The Kaiser Jeep Corporation name for the six-cylinder overhead cam (OHC) engine used in the M715 trucks. This engine was also used in some civilian Jeep vehicles during the early to mid-1960s. The Tornado was the only Kaiser-designed engine to ever be used in a Jeep vehicle.

TOW BAR: Usually an accessory item that attaches to a vehicle’s front bumper, either temporarily or permanently, allowing it to be towed by another vehicle.

TROOP SEATS: Usually refers to wooden or metal benches in the cargo bed of a military truck used for seating soldiers during transport in combat areas. Such seats are often part of the cargo racks and may be folded up out of the way when the vehicle is used to transport cargo.

TURN KEY: Usually refers to a vehicle that is in good condition and ready to drive. However, it may be only a seller’s opinion, and does not necessarily mean that the vehicle is fully or correctly restored, or in factory-new condition.

U


US-6
: G-number: G-630. A 2-1/2 ton, three-axle, ten-wheel-drive cargo truck built by the Studebaker Corporation during WWII. Most were sent to Russia, though many also served in Alaska. There were several variants, including 6×4 models.

USER MVer: Someone who drives and uses their MV for work or play, versus someone who only drives his or her MV in parades or shows.

V


VARIANT
: Usually refers to a model or type of vehicle that differs in some way from the basic or main production model. Examples: the M170 ambulance is a variant of the M38A1 Jeep, while the M43 ambulance is a variant of the M37 cargo truck.

VIETNAM ERA: Usually refers to the mid and late 1960s to the early 1970s.

W

WC: A general designation that usually refers to the 1/2-, 3/4-, and 1-1/2 ton Dodge trucks of WWII. WC does not stand for “Weapons Carrier.”

WEASEL: G-numbers: G-154 & G-179. A light, Jeep-sized, full-tracked vehicle built by the Studebaker Corporation during WWII. Originally designed for use in snow, the Weasel could also be fitted with a flotation kit to make it amphibious.

WHEEL: Usually refers to a vehicle’s wheel and tire assembly. What can be confusing is when a two-axle truck equipped with dual rear wheels—hence having six-wheels —is still called a “four-by-four.” Likewise, a ten-wheeled truck with three driving axles is commonly called a “six-by-six,” even though it technically has “ten-wheel-drive.” (It’s something you learn to live with.)

WHITE: The White Motor Truck Company.

WILLYS: Willys Overland Motors Company.

WIRE CUTTER: Usually refers to a vertical pipe or angle-iron mounted on a vehicle’s front bumper and is meant to cut wires that may be strung across roads with the intent of decapitating the drivers of vehicles, such as Jeeps, being driven with their windshields down. Usually a field modification.

WRECKER: Generally refers to vehicles equipped to tow other vehicles in breakdown situations.